Volume 12, no 4
Establishment of Average Molecular Structure Model for Collagen Extracted from Leather Solid Waste with Chromium
*, Xiaoyan PANG
, Luminița ALBU
China Leather and Footwear Industry Research Institute Beijing China, 100015, email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
INCDTP - Division: Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu, 031215, Bucharest, Romania, email: email@example.com
ABSTRACT. Collagen protein was extracted from cowhide leather solid waste with chromium by hydrolysis of alkaline and cycle method. Then different molecular weight ranges of collagen protein were got by ultrafiltration. Collagen protein was characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Multi-angle Laser Scattering meter and the average molecular weight was got, based on that the average molecular structure model was established. The study will provide the theory basis for the modification research of collagen.
KEY WORDS: collagen, ultrafiltration, average molecular structure model
Rheological Behavior of Some Collagen Creams
Mădălina Georgiana ALBU
*, Minodora LECA
, Viorica TRANDAFIR
INCDTP Division: Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93, Ion Minulescu, 031215, Bucharest, Romania, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 4-12, Bd. Regina Elisabeta,030018, Bucharest, Romania, email: email@example.com
ABSTRACT. Skin creams are used especially in restoring physical properties of the skin, particularly the state of hydration. Rheology is one of the methods used to characterize creams, both for determination of cream structure and quality control of the product. The aim of this work was to rheologically characterize three collagen creams: the basic one, named the reference, and two in which various extracts of fish (bream eggs and viscera) have been loaded. The most homogeneous and viscous cream was the reference cream and those with fish extracts in their composition result in viscosity decrease. All creams showed pseudoplastic rheological behavior dependent on time, namely thixotropic behaviour, less accentuated for reference cream.
KEY WORDS: cosmetic cream, collagen, rheology, fish extracts
Tannery Wastewaters Treatment for Sludge Valorisation in Agriculture
*, Gabriel ZĂINESCU
, Petre VOICU
, Zhiwen DING
, Xiaoyan PANG
INCDTP Division: Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu, Bucharest, Romania, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
National R&D Institute for Pedology, Agrochemistry and Environmental Protection, 61 Marasti Blvd., 71331, Bucharest, Romania
China Leather and Footwear Industry Research Institute, Beijing, China
ABSTRACT. Nowadays in our country tannery pollution control technologies are based on the classic physical chemical treatment with high consumption of reagents, resulting in large amounts of sludge which cannot be used in agriculture as fertilizer because of trivalent chromium content. In this paper an installation and a technological process were developed in order to obtain a sludge suitable for use in agriculture, based on the following processes: neutralization and dehydration of sludge; sterilization, biochemical treatment and enrichment of sludge from the treatment plant with elements necessary for plant growth and soil bioremediation (K, P, B, etc). The process contributes to both restoring poor and degraded soils to agriculture, and to reducing environmental pollution by exploiting sludge which is currently landfilled.
KEY WORDS: sludge, wastewaters, tannery, fertilizer, soil
Salinity Reduction through Synergetic Substitutes: MgO Aided Low Salt Skin Preservation
Victor JOHN SUNDAR*, Chellappa MURALIDHARAN, Asit Baran MANDAL
Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India, email: email@example.com
ABSTRACT. Conventionally the raw skins and hides are preserved using sodium chloride in many parts of the world with a quantity of 50- 60% of their weight. Given the quantity of skins and hides processed at the rate of 25,000 tonnes or more per day globally, the amounts of salt to be disposed pose serious environmental concern. Salting still remains the major preservation methodology as it satisfies the major technological and commercial requirements. Given the large amounts of water and chemical pollution discharged during the process, the need to reduce on usage and find alternate techniques is gaining importance. Many successful research efforts carried out on salt free / low salt preservation have not gained commercial acceptance for not meeting one or a combination of requirements. In this study a low salt MgO or soda ash substituted skin preservation methodology has been developed and significant economic and environmental benefits were found.
KEY WORDS: salinity reduction, chlorides, total dissolved solids, skins and hides preservation, leather processing
Effect of Arch Support on the Insole Pressure Distribution of Heel Heighted Shoes
Jin ZHOU, Weiwen ZHANG, Bo XU, Wuyong CHEN*
National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu P. R. China, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
ABSTRACT. This study aimed at exploring the effect of arch support on the insole pressure distribution of ladies' shoes with 20 mm, 50 mm and 80 mm heel height. Foot arch of ten ages-, body weight- and height-matched girls in barefoot standing posture was scanned by 3D measure system. Three types of last were proposed based on the foot arch: control last (CL), higher last (HL) and lower last (LL). CL was designed according to the foot model, whereas HL and LL indicated 2.5 mm higher or lower than that of CL in the arch area. Pressure variables of peak pressure (PP), contact area (CA) and pressure-time integral (PTI) at hind, mid and fore foot were analyzed by paired-T test with the significant level of 0.05. The result shows that no significant differences were observed at mid foot between comparisons of HL and CL, and CL and LL in each heel height. However, HL demonstrated a significantly lower PP and PTI than CL at forefoot in the 20 mm and at hind foot in the 80 mm heel height respectively; while CL demonstrated a significantly smaller PP than that of LL at hind foot in 50 mm heel height. It can be concluded that the last with an appropriate arch support was helpful in ameliorating pressure concentration under forefoot and hind foot.
KEY WORDS: high heel shoe, insole pressure, arch shape
Staff Motivation, the Main Component of Human Resource Management
Doina ŞERB*, Luminița ALBU, Elena NINCIULEANU
INCDTP - Division: Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu, sector 3, Bucharest, Romania, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT. According to the generally recognized and accepted definition, motivation sets forth that the human condition is always based a set of motives needs, tendencies, effects, interests, intentions, ideals that support the achievement of certain actions, deeds, attitudes or "all internal motives of conduct, whether innate or acquired, conscious or unconscious, basic physiological necessities or abstract ideals". Motivation remains the engine powering individual behavior, the reason that triggers actions, deeds and reactions, because it emphasizes behavior. In human activity, work is its central area, both in terms of its role in the historical genesis of the human being and its role in ontogenesis of the mature personality. In the work context, motivation can be defined as the availability of the employee to get involved and make a concerted effort to achieve professional goals. In the above mentioned context, motivation is regarded as a result of the transaction between the individual and the organizational context in which he operates, rather than the result of individual motivational dominants. Thus, job performance may occur when there is a fair overlap between individual expectations and organizational demands. It is necessary to distinguish between motivation through identification and motivation through use. The first leads the employee to internalize goals consistent with those of the organization and the second determines him to use the organization to his own purposes.
KEY WORDS: human resources, human resources management, staff motivation, individual development
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