Volume 23, no 3
KERATIN HYDROLYSATE FROM WOOL BY-PRODUCTS AS AN ADDITIVE FOR DYEING BOVINE LEATHERS
Mariana Daniela BERECHET*, Carmen GAIDĂU, Demetra SIMION, Claudiu ȘENDREA
INCDTP – Division: Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu St., Sector 3, Bucharest, Romania, email@example.com
ABSTRACT. In this research, the aim was to obtain keratin hydrolysate from wool waste from sheep breeders and use it in technologies for dyeing bovine hides. The keratin hydrolysate (KerNa), obtained by alkaline hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide, was physico-chemically analyzed, determining the protein substance in the amount of 80.65%, highlighting the bands specific to peptides and compounds with sulfur by FTIR spectroscopy and particle size by DLS technique, obtaining majority populations at 161 nm and 615 nm. Bovine hides were treated with keratin hydrolysate, in different stages of the dyeing process, and an increase in the dyeing resistance to wet and dry rubbing and the dyeing resistance to water drops was obtained, as well as the improvement of the specific color parameters. Leathers dyed with the use of the KerNa additive showed an increase in the friction resistance of the dyeing (grade 5/5) and brighter colors according to ISO Brightness. Treatments based on protein-rich keratin hydrolysate, applied in various stages of the dyeing process, interact with the leather’s collagen or tanning agents, giving the finished leathers improved properties of shade, shine and softness. The good results obtained in the applications of keratin hydrolysate in the leather industry show that the keratin extract can be the basis for obtaining new biomaterials with various applications. The utilization of wool waste from animal husbandry leads to a decrease in the amount of waste and the prevention of environmental pollution.
KEY WORDS: keratin hydrolysate, dyeing resistance, wool by-products
PRODUCTION OF ELASTIC LEATHERS FROM HORSE RAW MATERIAL USING ACTIVATED AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF AGENT
, Oksana ROMANIUK
, Tetiana NADOPTA
Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design, 2 Mala Shyianovska St. (Nemyrovycha-Danchenka St.), Kyiv, 01011, Ukraine, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Khmelnytskyi National University, 11 Instytuts’ka St., Khmelnytskyi, 29016, Ukraine, firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT. A step-by-step technology of formation of leather material made of horse raw materials using electrochemically activated aqueous solutions of chemical agents has been developed. Effective implementation of the leather raw material soaking process has been established due to the use of the optimal ratio of catholyte and anolyte. At the same time, environmentally hazardous agents are excluded from the process and its duration is reduced by two times compared to the current technology. The use of working solutions at the stages of liming and tanning with the use of catholyte and anolyte respectively, ensures the exclusion of environmentally hazardous chemical agents and the reduction of the processes duration. The developed technology of production of leather materials, unlike the existing ones, is characterized by simultaneous treatment of all anatomical areas of the hide.
KEY WORDS: horse hide, electrochemically activated water, activated agent solutions, technology, leather properties
INFLUENCE OF ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS ON THE POLYMER COMPOSITE BASED ON NBR RUBBER AND FUNCTIONALIZED PROTEIN WASTE
Mihaela NIŢUICĂ (VÎLSAN)*, Maria SÖNMEZ, Mihai GEORGESCU, Maria Daniela STELESCU, Dana GURĂU, Bogdan Florin RUSU, Andrei DUMITRU, Constantin-Vlad BĂRBULESCU
INCDTP - Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu St., sector 3, Bucharest, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT. Technology has progressed a lot in the last 20 years, today it is possible to obtain new polymer composites that show performance properties. The ever-increasing demand for new high-performance materials has determined the appearance of new polymer structures based on elastomers and various wastes (protein, cellulosic, elastomeric, etc.) from various fields (shoes, leather goods, etc.). This paper describes the obtaining and characterization of polymer composites based on NBR rubber (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) and protein waste from the footwear and leather goods industry, cryogenically ground to micrometric dimensions and modified with PDMS (polydimethyl siloxane). PDMS has the role of a plasticizer, but at the same time it improves the dispersion of protein waste mixed in the polymer matrix. The polymer composites were obtained by the mixing technique and tested from a physical-mechanical point of view according to the standards in force. The characterization in normal condition and accelerated aging at 70°C for 168 h (it was carried out hot, using the hot air circulation oven method) was carried out after the samples were subjected to conditioning for 24 h at ambient temperature. Also, the polymer composite samples were subjected for 365 days to atmospheric conditions (sun, rain, wind, hail, light, etc.) to see their influence on the properties of the obtained polymer composites.
KEY WORDS: NBR elastomer, polymer composite, leather waste, mechanical properties, functionalized
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF FOOTWEAR ROUGHING DUST DURING FOOTWEAR MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Md. Mehedi HASAN
, Hossain ISLAM
, Md. Mukter ALAM
, Mongsathowai MARMA
, Md. Rayhan SARKER
Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Leathergoods and Footwear Manufacturers & Exporters Association of Bangladesh (LFMEAB) – Skills for Employment Investment Program (SEIP), Banani, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh
ABSTRACT. Footwear roughing dust (FRD) is generated from roughing operations involved in footwear manufacturing. The dust is created by the friction of emery paper against the grain surface of finished leather. FRD coming from finished leather is likely to contain chromium, which is widely used for leather processing. Generally, chromium is found in two forms in the leather industry, namely Cr (III) and Cr (VI), of which the latter has an evident and adverse effect on human health. This study aims to identify the major effects of FRD on workers’ health and to find out the correlation with the factors influencing those adverse health effects. In this study, a survey among 30 roughing operators from eight footwear factories in Bangladesh was conducted. The major health effects of FRD are eye irritation, skin itching, chest pain, coughing, and fatigue. This study constructed three hypotheses to investigate whether human health is affected by FRD with working experience, the age of workers, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The results showed that working experience and use of PPE have distinct influences on the health effects caused by FRD, whereas workers’ age has no impact on their health effects. Finally, some recommendations are formulated to prevent or mitigate workers’ adverse health effects in order to ensure a better working environment in the footwear industry.
KEY WORDS: footwear roughing dust, health safety, occupational exposure, personal protective equipment
PERSONAL DESIGN, THE NEW FASHION TREND WITH APPLICATIONS OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
Traian FOIAȘI*, Mirela PANTAZI-BĂJENARU, Dana GURĂU
INCDTP - Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu St., sector 3, Bucharest, firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT. The development of 3D technology has brought opportunities and challenges to the shoe industry, as people’s living standards have improved due to economic development, and people have increasing requirements for shoe design. They have become more critical, active and informed. They pursue customized products/services and like to be involved in the design process. Additive manufacturing technologies enable this customization of products and new business models should embrace these trends to differentiate themselves and gain competitive advantage. The application of 3D technology is widespread in various fields, including footwear production. From a physical model, it is possible to create a digital model using 3D scanning technology for redesign purposes. The use of 3D printing technology can enable faster modeling of footwear products, enrich the shape of footwear and meet the aesthetic needs of footwear designers. Therefore, the article studies and analyzes the top technologies in fashion, 3D shoe printing technology.
KEY WORDS: fashion, innovative technologies, 3D printing
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: A CHALLENGE FOR LEATHER INDUSTRY
, Md. Rayhan SARKER
, Kawsar AKHTAR
, Aklima BEGUM
, Shafiqul ISLAM
Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Electronics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh, firstname.lastname@example.org
Limex Technologies Ltd., Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh, email@example.com
ABSTRACT. Adopting pollution prevention strategies (PPS) can ensure environmental sustainability (ES) in the leather industry and can help the industry achieve several sustainable development goals (SDGs). In order to ensure the ES of the leather industry, there is a need for research to identify a comprehensive list of PPS. This research aims at identifying the most effective PPS for the leather industry, which are categorized into 4R (reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover) dimensions. This is a case study where four leather processing companies from Bangladesh were purposively selected. Through an extensive literature review and experts’ opinions, 21 PPS are identified for the leather industry’s ES. Also, this study shows several benefits of PPS through which various SDGs can be achieved in the leather industry. This study will certainly guide the leather industry managers to ensure the ES of the leather industry and, consequently, assist in achieving several SDGs.
KEY WORDS: 4R strategies, environment sustainability, leather industry, pollution prevention, sustainable development goals
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