Volume 12, no 2
Complementary Methods for Recovery and Valorisation of Proteins from Chrome Leather Wastes
*, Jan Sedliacik
, Carmen GAIDAU
, Peter JURKOVIC
, Jan MATYASOVSKY
INCDTP Division: Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu St, sector 3, Bucharest, Romania, email: email@example.com
Technical University, Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Masaryka 24, 960 53, Zvolen, Slovakia, firstname.lastname@example.org
VIPO s.a., Partizanske, Gen. Svobodu 1069/4, 958 01 Partizánske, Slovakia, email@example.com
ABSTRACT. Current research highlights the possibility of extracting the protein component from chrome leather wastes from the leather industry, using different techniques, and its valorisation in various agricultural and industrial applications. Experiments have shown that, depending on the method of separating proteins from chromium compounds, the protein component is suitable for an application or another. Alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of chrome leather wastes offers the possibility of obtaining a collagen hydrolysate which can be used as additive in the composition of foliar fertilizers, with the role of plant growth stimulation and protection, while dechroming using a new chromium extraction process in acid environment, without its oxidation into hexavalent chromium, leads to obtaining more concentrated hydrolysates, which, used in the composition of adhesives for the wood industry, lead to reduction of formaldehyde emissions.
KEY WORDS: collagen, fertilizers, adhesives
Supervised Multi-Agent Control of Leather Manufacturing Processes by Using the Fuzzy Logic
*, Sergiu-Adrian GUTA
Faculty of Automatic Control and Computers, Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
INCDTP Division: Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu, Bucharest, Romania, email: email@example.com
ABSTRACT. In this paper we propose a supervised multi-agent control strategy for leather manufacturing processes. In a tannery numerous processes are performed and in order to control them we use an agent for each process. Due to the control from distance, the systems are affected by varying communication delays which can affect the quality of the final product. The supervisor is used to adjust, by using the fuzzy logic, the command provided by each agent. Simulation results are presented. The results show performance improvement when our control strategy is used.
KEY WORDS: multi-agent control, supervised control, fuzzy logic, communication delay, leather manufacturing
Computer Aided Material Estimation for Leather and Synthetic Products, Based on Parts Compact Drawing Method
Alex ANTEMIE*, Florentina HARNAGEA
"Gh. Asachi" Technical University, 29 Dimitrie Mangeron St., Iasi, Romania, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
ABSTRACT. Correct material consumption estimation, from the design stage of a leather or synthetic product, is an important issue, because material costs represent a significant percentage from the sale price of that product (footwear, bags, automotive, etc.). Over time, the specific theory for these products, and also the manufacture sites for leather and synthetic products, suggested different methods for material consumption estimation. This paper presents algorithmics for one material estimation method, based on compact drawing of article parts, in two variants, the bounding rectangle and the squares network. Research focusing in this direction is justified by the fact that this method has a wide application in the industry, but often the provided results do not match real values, with hard to tolerate deviations. By developing an algorithm, we aimed to control parameters specific to this method, in order to enlarge and control the estimation domain for this method.
KEY WORDS: computer-aided norming, leather, leather substitutes, compact drawing
Transparency of the Origin of Hides & Skins in European Leather Industry
*, Luminita ALBU
COTANCE, 3, Rue Belliard, B-1040, Brussels, Belgium, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
INCDTP Division: ICPI, 93, Ion Minulescu, 031215, Sector 3, Bucharest, Romania, email: email@example.com
ABSTRACT. Leather production fulfils a fundamental role in our society. It recovers the hides and skins that result from the production of meat for human consumption and transform them into a noble material that finds a lot of applications in our modern life, at the same time generating wealth and employment. Consumers increasingly demand reassurance that the products they buy are not only fit for purpose but also that they are safe and produced in sound conditions throughout their life cycle. Offences against social, environmental or ethical values stigmatise the product and the producer in the eyes of consumers who are looking for ever increasing sustainable consumption habits. European tanners recognise that consumers and customers care about what occurs before the hides or skins are generated in slaughterhouses. The sensationalistic news in the media regarding bad practices in farms, during the transport of animals and at the time of slaughter have many times adverse effects in the area of public image of the tanning sector, although its activity starts after these phases. European tanners are interested in a more pro-active attitude with regard to transparency and traceability of the origin of hides and skins so, the European Social Partners, COTANCE and ETUF:TCL, decided in 2011 to develop together a project in this area. The overall aim is to provide both sides of the industry with intelligence for understanding the issue and elaborating for the attention of the Social Partners of the European Leather Industry the Recommendations for further action in this field.
KEY WORDS: transparency, traceability, hides & skins supply chain
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